Homo Ludens is a book originally published in Dutch in [2] by Dutch historian and cultural theorist Johan Huizinga. The Latin word ludens is the present active participle of the verb luderewhich itself is cognate with the noun ludus. Ludus has no direct equivalent in English, as it simultaneously refers to sport, play, school, and practice. Homo Ludens is an important part of the history of game studies.

It influenced later scholars of play, like Roger Caillois. The concept of the magic circle was inspired by Homo Ludens.

Huizinga makes it clear in the foreword of his book that he means the play element of culture, and not the play element in culture. He writes that he titled the initial lecture the book is based on "The Play Element of Culture". This title was repeatedly corrected to "in" Culture, a revision he objected to.

The English version modified the subtitle of the book to "A Study of the Play-Element in Culture"contradicting Huizinga's stated intention. The translator explains in a footnote in the Foreword, "Logically, of course, Huizinga is correct; but as English prepositions are not governed by logic I have retained the more euphonious ablative in this sub-title.

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Play is older than culture, for culture, however inadequately defined, always presupposes human society, and animals have not waited for man to teach them their playing. Huizinga begins by making it clear that animals played before humans.

One of the most significant human and cultural aspects of play is that it is fun. Huizinga identifies 5 characteristics that play must have: [9]. Word and idea are not born of scientific or logical thinking but of creative language, which means of innumerable languages—for this act of "conception" has taken place over and over again.

Huizinga has much to say about the words for play in different languages. Perhaps the most extraordinary remark concerns the Latin language. We must leave to one side the question whether the disappearance of ludus and ludere is due to phonetic or to semantic causes.

Of all the possible uses of the word "play" Huizinga specifically mentions the equation of play with, on the one hand, "serious strife", and on the other, "erotic applications". Huizinga attempts to classify the words used for play in a variety of natural languages. The chapter title uses "play-concept" to describe such words. Other words used with the "play-" prefix are play-function and play-form.

The order in which examples are given in natural languages is as follows:. The view we take in the following pages is that culture arises in the form of play, that it is played from the very beginning Social life is endued with supra-biological forms, in the shape of play, which enhances its value.

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Huizinga does not mean that "play turns into culture". Rather, he sets play and culture side by side, talks about their "twin union", but insists that "play is primary". The judge's wig, however, is more than a mere relic of antiquated professional dress. Functionally it has close connections with the dancing masks of savages. It transforms the wearer into another "being".

And it is by no means the only very ancient feature which the strong sense of tradition so peculiar to the British has preserved in law. The sporting element and the humour so much in evidence in British legal practice is one of the basic features of law in archaic society.

Huizinga puts forward the idea that there are "three play-forms in the lawsuit" and that these forms can be deduced by comparing practice today with "legal proceedings in archaic society": [23]. Until recently the " law of nations " was generally held to constitute such a system of limitation, recognizing as it did the ideal of a community with rights and claims for all, and expressly separating the state of war—by declaring it—from peace on the one hand and criminal violence on the other.

It remained for the theory of " total war " to banish war's cultural function and extinguish the last vestige of the play-element.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

I got plyfile to work in the Windows 10 Pro environment using Spyder 3. Open the plyfile. Run the plyfile. Remove any import statement like "from plyfile import PlyData, PlyElement" from the program you want to use plyfile in. Otherwise you will get the TypeError above when you run your program file. After that you can check whether the package has been installed in the same conda environment by using.

Learn more. Installing plyfile to Anaconda3 Ask Question. Asked 4 years ago. Active 3 years, 1 month ago. Viewed 6k times. Could you please help me? AlK AlK 1 1 gold badge 9 9 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. I did install plyfile using pip and when I enter the command "from plyfile import PlyData, PlyElement" in the Python 3.

Try this. This worked for me. Run your. Unheilig Vanshaj Vanshaj 1. Find out executable used by Spyder or Jupyter import sys sys. Barun Barun 1, 2 2 gold badges 10 10 silver badges 18 18 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.

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The Overflow Blog. Podcast Ben answers his first question on Stack Overflow. The Overflow Bugs vs. Featured on Meta. Responding to the Lavender Letter and commitments moving forward. Linked Related Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled.It returns a Promise which is resolved when playback has been successfully started.

Failure to begin playback for any reason, such as permission issues, result in the promise being rejected.

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A Promise which is resolved when playback has been started, or is rejected if for any reason playback cannot be started. The promise's rejection handler is called with an exception name passed in as its sole input parameter as opposed to a traditional exception being thrown.

Possible errors include:. Other exceptions may be reported, depending on browser implementation details, media player implementation, and so forth. Although the term "autoplay" is usually thought of as referring to pages that immediately begin playing media upon being loaded, web browsers' autoplay policies also apply to any script-initiated playback of media, including calls to play.

If the user agent is configured not to allow automatic or script-initiated playback of media, calling play will cause the returned promise to be immediately rejected with a NotAllowedError. Web sites should be prepared to handle this situation. For example, a site should not present a user interface that assumes playback has begun automatically, but should instead update their UI based on whether the returned promise is resolved or rejected.

See the example below for more information. Note: The play method may cause the user to be asked to grant permission to play the media, resulting in a possible delay before the returned promise is resolved. Be sure your code doesn't expect an immediate response. For even more in-depth information about autoplay and autoplay blocking, see our article Autoplay guide for media and Web Audio APIs. This example demonstrates how to confirm that playback has begun and how to gracefully handle blocked automatic playback:.

In this example, playback of video is toggled off and on by the async playVideo function. It tries to play the video, and if successful sets the class name of the playButton element to "playing". If playback fails to start, the playButton element's class is cleared, restoring its default appearance. This ensures that the play button matches the actual state of playback by watching for the resolution or rejection of the Promise returned by play.

When this example is executed, it begins by collecting references to the embeds a media player which supports video playback into the document. It then sets up an event handler for the click event on the play toggle button and attempts to automatically begin playback by calling playVideo. You can try out or remix this example in real time on Glitch.

Get the latest and greatest from MDN delivered straight to your inbox. Sign in to enjoy the benefits of an MDN account. Note: Older browsers may not return a value from play. The compatibility table on this page is generated from structured data.GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. The PLY format is documented elsewhere. Note: numpy 1. As a workaround, you can manually byte-swap your arrays using el. For the code examples that follow, assume the file tet. The static method PlyData. A PlyData instance has an attribute elementswhich is a list of PlyElement instances, each of which has a data attribute which is a numpy structured array containing the numerical data.

PLY file elements map onto numpy structured arrays in a pretty obvious way. PlyProperty and PlyListProperty instances are used internally as a convenient intermediate representation of PLY element properties that can easily be serialized to a PLY header using str or converted to numpy -compatible type descriptions via the dtype method.

It's not extremely common to manipulate them directly, but if needed, the property metadata of an element can be accessed as a tuple via the properties attribute as illustrated above or looked up by name:. The string value of the PlyParseError instance as well as attributes elementrowand prop provides additional context for the error if applicable.

The first step is to get your data into numpy structured arrays. Note that there are some restrictions: generally speaking, if you know the types of properties a PLY file element can contain, you can easily deduce the restrictions. For example, PLY files don't contain bit integer or complex data, so these aren't allowed.

For convenience, non-scalar fields are allowed; they will be serialized as list properties. For example, if we wanted to create the "vertex" and "face" PLY elements of the tet. Once you have suitably structured array, the static method PlyElement. Note that there's no need to create PlyProperty instances explicitly. One slight hiccup here is that variable-length fields in a numpy array i. For simplicity and predictability, the length defaults to 8-bit unsigned integer, and the value defaults to bit signed integer, which covers the majority of use cases.

Exceptions must be stated explicitly:. Comments can have leading whitespace, but trailing whitespace may be stripped and should not be relied upon. Comments may not contain embedded newlines. The PLY format provides no way to assert that all the data for a given list property is of the same length, yet this is a relatively common occurrence.What does this mean for me? You will always be able to play your favorite games on Kongregate.

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HTMLMediaElement.play()

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Hide the progress bar forever? Yes No. Your game will start after this message close. Report Cinematic Bug Install or enable Adobe Flash Player.

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Alternatively, we also recommend the SuperNova! Plugin for Chrome as an easy way to enable Flash content in the browser. Get more out of your Kongregate experience. Take advantage of ad-free gaming, cool profile skins, automatic beta access, and private chat with Kong Plus. We have reduced support for legacy browsers. Trending with Friends Activity Feed g Register or sign in to start receiving activity updates from around Kongregate!

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Create Listings.What does this mean for me? You will always be able to play your favorite games on Kongregate. However, certain site features may suddenly stop working and leave you with a severely degraded experience. What should I do? We strongly urge all our users to upgrade to modern browsers for a better experience and improved security.

To enhance your user experience, support technical features, and personalize content and ads, this site uses cookies. An open platform for all web games! Get your games in front of thousands of users while monetizing through ads and virtual goods. With our publishing program, we can help get your games to millions of users on multiple platforms!

Keep exploring Kongregate with more badges and games! Spend your hard earned kreds on some of these games! Hide the progress bar forever? Yes No. Your game will start after this message close. Report Cinematic Bug Install or enable Adobe Flash Player.

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Alternatively, we also recommend the SuperNova! Plugin for Chrome as an easy way to enable Flash content in the browser. Get more out of your Kongregate experience. Take advantage of ad-free gaming, cool profile skins, automatic beta access, and private chat with Kong Plus.

We have reduced support for legacy browsers. Trending with Friends Activity Feed g Register or sign in to start receiving activity updates from around Kongregate! Host Your Game on Kongregate An open platform for all web games!These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'element. Send us feedback. See more words from the same century Dictionary Entries near element eleidin elem eleme figs element elemental elementalism elementary.

Accessed 10 Oct. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for element element. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Vocabulary Forms of Government Quiz A gerontocracy is rule by: elders unwritten laws soothsayers animals Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?

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Convening on 'Counsel' and 'Council' We drop the gavel. Ask the Editors 'Intensive purposes': An Eggcorn We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt': An Eggcorn We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?

Or something like that. A challenging quiz of changing words. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Login or Register. Save Word. Definition of element. Keep scrolling for more. Choose the Right Synonym for element elementcomponentconstituentingredient mean one of the parts of a compound or complex whole.

Examples of element in a Sentence Water is composed of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. First Known Use of element 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a. Learn More about element. Time Traveler for element The first known use of element was in the 13th century See more words from the same century. Dictionary Entries near element eleidin elem eleme figs element elemental elementalism elementary See More Nearby Entries.

Phrases Related to element brave the elements element of surprise in one's element out of one's element. More Definitions for element. English Language Learners Definition of element. Kids Definition of element. Comments on element What made you want to look up element?

Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Love words? Need even more definitions? The awkward case of 'his or her'. Take the quiz Semantic Drift Quiz A challenging quiz of changing words.